Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine roles of midwives in helping women improve behavior for protection against breast cancer and towards early diagnosis whether they have a family history of cancer or not. Materials and methods: The study was planned in order to evaluate the efficacy of education about the risk factors of breast cancer and primary and secondary protection (early diagnosis) measures given to the women between the ages of 20-49, literate, married and who had or did not have cancer cases in their families. It was carried out in the region of Camkule Levent Kara Health Care Center between March 2006 and April 2007. Results: Age, educational and economic status of the women with or without a cancer case in their families have been equivalent and a statistically significant difference has not been determined between both of the groups (p>0.05). The cancer risk perception of the women having a cancer case in their families (75.8%) was higher than in those wwithout (62.8%) (p<0.005). Although they were also better informed about protection against cancer and early diagnosis, they do not participate to a greater extent in the practices of early diagnosis-scanning of breast cancer and they do not turn the information into attitude or behavior. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that midwives have significant responsibilities for directing all women towards protection against breast cancer and early diagnosis programs.