The aim of this study was to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of the Insulin like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) and Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor gene (IGF-1R) polymorphisms in East Anatolian (EAR) and South Anatolian Red cattle (SAR). Polymorphisms in both genes are claimed to affect economic parameters like body weight and subcutaneous back fat. For the study, blood samples were collected from 50 SAR and 50 EAR cattle. In both breeds, high frequencies of allele B of IGF-1, which was supposed to have positive effect on carcass traits and allele A of IGF-1R, related to milk traits, were observed. Therefore, no relationship of the polymorphisms studied with economic traits was observed, as both breeds have respectively low carcass and milk parameters. However, distribution of allele frequencies of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in SAR and EAR cattle was similar with Zebu cattle that support Bos indicus introgression to Anatolian breeds.