On-site pXRF analysis of glaze composition and colouring agents of "Iznik" tiles at Edirne mosques (15th and 16th-centuries)

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Simsek G., ÜNSALAN O. , Bayraktar K., Colomban P.

CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, cilt.45, ss.595-605, 2019 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)

  • Cilt numarası: 45 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2019
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.09.213
  • Sayfa Sayısı: ss.595-605


The production of the tiles in Ottoman Empire had begun as a continued workshop of Seldjuk ceramic art, and after this initial phase, its own technology was introduced into Ottoman art by local craftsmen. Iznik tiles are among the most appreciated pottery masterpieces, and wall decoration in tiles is a significant asset of Unesco World Heritage Edirne mosques. Rare glaze composition studies have been made, which justify the need for more comprehensive studies. We present here the first on-site elemental analyses performed with portable XRF instrument in four of the most representative mosques in Edirne (Sah Melek Pasa (1429), Muradiye (1435-1436), Uc Serefeli (1410-1447) and Selimiye (1569-1575)). A handheld 785 nm Raman spectrometer was used as a complementary technique to identify some pigments. About forty tiles have been analysed in this research. Additionally, two tiles from Yesilce Mosque (1442, Edirne) have been analysed at the Selimiye Foundation Museum. The weight percent of the elements measured with pXRF are normalized by Si amount in order to eliminate the variation due to the positioning shifts. Different glazing technologies are evidenced (Master of Tabriz Sn-free glazed tiles, Hunkar Mahfili Sn-poor glazed tiles, and Sn-(Bi) rich ones). At least three different cobalt ores have been used (with characteristic Cu, Ni, Mn and Bi content) in blue decors. Use of a chromium-based ore is demonstrated for some Selimiye Hunkar Mahfili tiles. The link between Sah Melek Pass and polychrome (mihrab) Muradiye tiles and Seldjuk production is established. On the contrary, the technology of Uc Serefeli and blue-and-white Muradiye tiles is unique and appears a precursor of 16th-century Iznik production. Bismuth, Sn/Pb, Co/Mn, and Co/Ni ratio appears very useful to compare the different glazes and to identify mining sources of cobalt.