Leydig cell tumors of the testis are rare, mostly presenting as a testicular mass or as endocrinological symptoms. Here, three patients who were admitted for investigation of primary infertility and one patient presenting with a testicular mass are reported. The histological features were reviewed and an immunohistochemical study was done using a panel of antibodies against cytokeratin, vimentin, inhibin A, S-100, Ki-67, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, p53, bcl-2, and c-erbB2. The latter case (lost during follow up of metastatic disease) demonstrated massive tumor necrosis, extension through the tunica albuginea, and a high mitotic activity and MIB-1 score. Only this malignant case was bcl-2 positive. Of the two oncogenic markers studied, none of the cases were positive for c-erb2, while p53 was positive in more than 50% of cells in the malignant case and in one case of infertility with a large tumor, hemorrhage, focal necrosis and atypical cytological features. We recommend the evaluation of infertile men for Leydig cell tumors, and we believe that a panel of antibodies, including Ki-67, p53 and bcl-2, used for immunohistochemical analysis could be of diagnostic value in the identification of malignant and borderline cases of Leydig cell tumor.