Background The human gut can be colonized by number of microorganisms. The most studied are bacteria, which changes from birth to newborn born into adult-like gut microbiota. Much is known about the effects of dietary, medications, and lifestyles on the bacterial composition. However, the host physiological changes influencing the gut microbiota, the immediate consequences, and the possible gut microbiota therapy are not studied at length. This review is based profoundly on animal model studies through experimentation and some human clinical trials for the past 20 years. Forward The physiological factors studied to influences gut microbiota are bacterial mucosal receptors, mucin glycosylation, mucus, epithelial microvilli, and tight junction. Host secretions and immune response such as immunity, secretory A (sIgA), inflammasome, innate immunity, immune response, glycans, bile acids, peristalsis, microRNA, and adhesion to intestinal glycans are as well found to confer variety of alterations on gut microbial flora. Conclusion Despite the resilience of the gut microbiota in response to changes, chain of events causes the imbalance microbiota. Increased pro-inflammatory potential with the help of cell barriers, host secretions, and immune response mediate gut recovery.