Seaweeds for food and industrial applications


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Kılınç B. , Cirik S. , Turan G. , Tekoğul H. , Koru E.

Seaweeds for Food and Industrial Applications, Gérard Mourou;,Yoshinori Ohsumi;,Harold Kroto;,Niklaus Zimmermann., Editör, INTECH Open Access Publisher, London, ss.735-748, 2013 identifier identifier identifier

  • Basım Tarihi: 2013
  • Yayınevi: INTECH Open Access Publisher
  • Basıldığı Şehir: London
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.735-748
  • Editörler: Gérard Mourou;,Yoshinori Ohsumi;,Harold Kroto;,Niklaus Zimmermann., Editör

Özet

1. Introduction Marine macroalgae, or the term seaweeds, are plant-like organisms that generally live attached to rock or other hard substrata in coastal areas. The classification into divisions is based on various properties such as pigmentation, chemical nature of photosynthetic storage product, the organization of photosynthetic membranes, and other morphological fea‐ tures. Traditionally, they belong to four different groups, empirically distinguished since the mid-nineteenth century on the basis of color: blue-green algae (phylum: Cyanophyta, up to 1500 species), red algae (phylum: Rhodophyta, about 6000 species), brown algae (phylum: Ochrophyta, classes: Phaeophyceae, about 1750 species), and green algae (phylum: Chlorophyta, classes: Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Dasycladophyceae, Prasinophy‐ ceae, and Ulvophyceae, about 1200 species). However, each of these groups has microscop‐ ics, if not unicellular, represantatives. All seaweeds at some stage in their life cycles are unicellular, as spores or zygotes, and may be temporarily planktonic. The blue-green algae are widesperead on temperate rocky and sandy shores and have occasionally been acknowledged in seaweed floras. Seaweeds are found growing throughouth the world oceans and seas none is found to be poisonous (Bold and Wyne, 1985; Guiry, 2009; Lobban and Harrison, 2000). Why seaweed is important? Most people don’t realize how impor‐ tant marine macroalgae are, both ecologically and commercially. In fact, seaweeds are crucial primary producer in oceanic aquatic food webs. They are rich both in minerals and essential trace elements, and raw materials for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry (Chap‐ man, 1970). Seaweed is a very versatile product widely used for food in direct human consumption. Its classified taxonomically as algae and they represent a food group that is not normally ingested in unprocessed form to any great extent in Western societies. Humankind is no strangers to the use of algae as a food source. Even if seaweeds have been used as a human food since ancient times, particularly in the region bounded by China, the