Trichinellosis often causing diarrhea and more rarely fever, periorbital edema and myositis in human, is commonly treated with benzimidazole derivatives. The Artemisia genus has been found to be effective against a variety of parasites. In the present study, the efficacy against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium was examined for the first time in rats. The results of trichinoscopy and artificial digestion, during the enteral (adult) phase of the illness show that 300 mg/kg doses of methanol extracts of the aerial parts of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium reduced the larval rate by 75.6% and 63.5% in tongue, 53.4% and 37.7% in diaphragm, 67.8% and 46.2% in quadriceps, and 66.7% and 60.5% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Furthermore, during the parenteral (encapsulated larvae) phase, 600 mg/kg doses of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium extracts decreased the larval rate by 66.4% and 59.9% in tongue, 57.4% and 50.0% in diaphragm, 47.6% and 43.7% in quadriceps, 60.2% and 46.4% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Analysis of antibody also showed that A. vulgaris significantly reduced the antibody response (P < 0.05) during the enteral and parenteral phases. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that A. vulgaris could be an alternative drug against trichinellosis. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.