The effect of principal component analysis in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure via heart rate variability analysis


SELEK M. B. , YEŞİLKAYA B., Egeli S. S. , İŞLER Y.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART H-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/09544119211036806
  • Title of Journal : PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART H-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE
  • Keywords: Heart rate variability, congestive heart failure, visual machine learning tool, principal component analysis, TIME-SERIES ANALYSIS, WAVELET ENTROPY, NERVOUS-SYSTEM, POINCARE PLOT, HRV, CLASSIFICATION, PERFORMANCE, DYNAMICS

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of principal component analysis (PCA) in congestive heart failure (CHF) diagnosis using various machine learning algorithms from 5-min HRV data. The extracted 59 heart rate variability (HRV) features consist of statistical time-domain measures, frequency-domain measures (power spectral density estimations from Fourier transform and Lomb-Scargle methods), time-frequency HRV measures (Wavelet transform), and nonlinear HRV measures (Poincare plot, symbolic dynamics, detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy). All these HRV features are the classifiers' inputs. We repeated the study ten times using the first one to the first 10 principal components from PCA instead of all HRV features. Nine different classifiers, namely logistic regression, Naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, decision tree, AdaBoost, support vector machines, stochastic gradient descent, random forest, and artificial neuronal network (multilayer perceptron) are examined. The proposed study results in the 100% accuracy, 100% specificity, and 100% sensitivity after utilizing PCA (with the first eight principal components) using the Random Forest classifier where the maximum classifier performances are the 86% accuracy, 79% specificity, and 86% sensitivity before PCA. In conclusion, PCA is beneficial in the diagnosis of patients with CHF. In addition, we experienced the online Python-based visual machine learning tool, Orange, which can implement well-known machine learning algorithms.