Background: Microsurgeons may face inadequate vessel length in traumatic or post-resection vascular defects and flap surgery. As tissue regeneration by mechanical forces is possible like in tissue expansion and distraction osteogenesis, we questioned the effect of traction forces on isolated vessels, generated by an internal maxillary distraction device to overcome such problem. Methods: 30 Wistar-Albino rats were randomized in two groups as control and traction. By an internal maxillary distraction device placed subcutaneously to abdominal region, femoral artery and vein of traction group were applied daily traction for 10 days perpendicular to their course. Control group received the same procedure but no traction was applied. Vessel length, blood flow and histologic and microangiographic changes were evaluated on postoperative 11th day. Results: Final length of vessels was found to be higher in the traction group (21.93 mm) compared to control group (12.86 mm). (P = 0.000) Blood-flow patency rate of artery and vein was found 100 % in control group (n = 15) and 80 % in experiment group (n = 12). Microangiographic study showed patent blood flow in both control and traction groups. Histologic evaluation showed vascular wall thickening, perivascular adipocyte and neutrophil infiltration and vein lumen enlargement compared to control group. Conclusion: The preliminary "traction vasculogenesis" technique is found to be a promising technique to gain vessel length in vascular shortness problems. With further studies and refinements this technique may be carried to clinical applications in cases of vascular inadequacy.