The aim was to investigate the antibacterial activity of various acids and adhesives with and without antibacterial components against Streptococcus mutans. The antibacterial activities of 35% phosphoric acid (Ultra-Etch), 37% phosphoric acid with benzalkonium chloride (Etch-37), adhesive with chlorhexidine (Peak Universal Bond) and without any agent (PQ1) were investigated by agar-diffusion test. The inhibition-zones were measured after 48 h of incubation. For the tooth-cavity model test; cylindrical cavities were prepared on occlusal dentin surfaces of human molars and divided into four groups (n = 10 cavity/group). Group 1: Ultra-Etch + Peak Universal Bond, Group 2: Ultra-Etch + PQ1, Group 3: Etch-37 + PQ1 were applied. The fourth group without any agent application served as control. The teeth were immersed in 5.8 x 10(6) cfu/ml of S. mutans solution to infect the cavities for 72 h before the application of the groups. After 72 h, dentin chips were collected from the cavity walls with burs for bacterial counting. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, Bonferroni and Dunnett C tests (p < 0.05). Ultra-Etch and Etch-37 performed similar antibacterial activities in agar-diffusion test. Both acids showed better antibacterial activity compared to adhesives (p < 0.05). The antibacterial activity of PQ1 and Peak Universal Bond was observed to be inactivated by light-polymerization. According to the tooth-cavity model; Group I, II, and III demonstrated reduction in bacterial number and there was no significant difference between them. Antibacterial component additions in etchant and adhesive did not show superior antibacterial activity against S. mutans in both in vitro tests.