Sea-level rise during the Holocene brought about a ria-type bay (Troian Bay) in the lower part of the Karamenderes (Scamander) valley which intruded approx. 17 km up to the south of the present plain about 7000-6000 years ago. Since then, alluviation and deltaic progradation has moved the shoreline north of the Canakkale Strait (Dardanelles). A relative fall in sea level of about 2 m in the Bronze Age accelerated this process. Thus, Troia was a coastal settlement at first, while the area to the west in periods IV, V and VI was a broad deltaic swamp. The sea in the coastal zone of the Karamenderes delta plain was very shallow, and the land was covered by swamps during the entire progradation period. Therefore, the geographical environment has never been suitable for the establishment of an important harbour or city development based on harbour activity.