The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young infants admitted with acute bronchiolitis was analysed to determine whether the former affects the clinical course of the latter. A total of 92 infants aged <6 months admitted with acute bronchiolitis were tested for C. trachomatis by a cell culture technique, obtaining nasal smears from each infant's nostrils. A second nasal sampling was taken for respiratory viruses from the study group and tested with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical characteristics of C. trachomatis-positive and -negative cases were compared. C. trachomatis was detected in 22.8% of the infants, mostly as coinfection with respiratory viral agents. Infection with C. trachomatis affected the clinical outcome in acute bronchiolitis and such infants tended to have severe bronchiolitis.