We have identified a novel gene, six transmembrane protein of prostate 1 (STAMP1), which is largely specific to prostate for expression and is predicted to code for a 490-amino acid six transmembrane protein. Using a form of STAMP1 labeled with green fluorescent protein in quantitative time-lapse and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, we show that STAMP1 is localized to the Golgi complex, predominantly to the trans-Golgi network, and to the plasma membrane. STAMP1 also localizes to vesicular tubular structures in the cytosol and colocalizes with the early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), suggesting that it may be involved in the secretory/endocytic pathways. STAMP1 is highly expressed in the androgen-sensitive, androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, but not in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU145. Furthermore, STAMP1 expression is significantly lower in the androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft CWR22 compared with the relapsed derivative CWR22R, suggesting that its expression may be deregulated during prostate cancer progression. Consistent with this notion, in situ analysis of human prostate cancer specimens indicated that STAMP1 is expressed exclusively in the epithelial cells of the prostate and its expression is significantly increased in prostate tumors compared with normal glands. Taken together, these data suggest that STAMP1 may have an important role in the normal prostate cell as well as in prostate cancer progression.