Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare (1/400 000 newborns) but potentially devastating condition, which may be transient or permanent; typical symptoms occur within the first 4 wk of life. The transient form is a developmental insulin production disorder that resolves postnatally. Fifty to 60% of cases can be seen as transient form. Cases that require lifelong insulin therapy can be described as permanent condition. This fraction of cases is less common than the transient form. There are no clinical features that can predict whether a neonate with diabetes mellitus but no other dysmorphology will eventually have permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) or transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. Some metabolic or genetic defects such as complete deficiency of glucokinase or heterozygous activating mutations of KCNJ11, encoding Kir6.2, were found in patients with PNDM. A preterm female infant with a gestational age of 36 wk was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in the first hours of life due to prematurity and intra-uterine growth retardation. She was diagnosed as having arthrogryposis multiplex congenita on the first day. Hyperglycemia was detected on the third day of life, and she required insulin treatment. The patient is now 6 yr old with PNDM, arthrogryposis multiplex, neurogenic bladder, immune deficiency, constipation, and ichthyosis. Is this a new form of neonatal diabetes mellitus?