Field surveys were carried out in the main cherry growing areas of Western Anatolia (Kemalpasa-izmir, Sultandag-Afyon, Saphane-Kutahya and Bayramic-Canakkale) to evaluate the presence of viruses and viroids. Many trees were found with leaves showing virus-like symptoms: i.e., chlorotic spots and mosaic, vein banding and shot holes. Less frequently, trees showing stunting and dieback were observed. Virus status was determined by ELISA and sap transmission to herbaceous plants. Tests were conducted for six viruses, including Plum pox virus (PPV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Some 163 (35%) cherry samples of 475 tested by ELISA were infected by at least one virus. The predominant identified viruses were PDV, PNRSV, ACLSV and PDV. The presence of Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) was checked by tissue-printing molecular hybridization. All forty samples tested for viroids were negative.