The adsorption isotherms of oleuropein and rutin were evaluated at different temperatures, pH values, and solid/liquid ratios. The experimental data of adsorption isotherms were well fitted to a Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were determined as 108 mg of oleuropein/g of silk fibroin and 21 mg of rutin/g of silk fibroin. After adsorption of oleuropein and rutin, the antioxidant capacity of silk fibroin increased from 1.93 to 3.61 mmol of TEAC/g. Silk fibroin also gained antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae after adsorption of olive leaf antioxidants. In a desorption process, 81% of rutin and 85% of oleuropein were removed from the adsorbent surface in 70% aqueous ethanol solution. Consequently, silk fibroin was found to be a promising biomaterial for the production of functional food or dietary supplements and for the purification of oleuropein and rutin from olive leaf extracts.