Cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms of leishmaniasis, transmitted by sand flies, are seen in all countries located in Mediterranean Basin including Turkey. In this study, we aimed to conduct an entomological survey for the detection of sand fly fauna and vector species in Mersin province, one of the important endemic areas for CL in Turkey. In total, 912 sand fly specimens were collected in 2010 and 2011 using CDC light traps. Nine Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae) and three Sergentomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) species were detected. Of the collected Phlebotomus sand flies, P. sergenti Parrot, 1917 (30.1%) was the most dominant followed by P. alexandri Sinton, 1928 (18.2%), P. neglectus/syriacusTonnoir Adler (12.0%), P. tobbi Adler & Theodor, 1930 (11.7%), and P. papatasi Scopoli, 1786 (10.2%), while S. minuta Rondani, 1843 (11.3%) was the dominant species among Sergentomyia. During the field work in 2011, female specimens (n = 81) were screened for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes by midgut dissection, and all were found negative.The rest of the collected female specimens (n = 334) were pooled according to species (P. alexandri, P. neglectus/syriacus, P. papatasi, P. sergenti, P. simici, and P. tobbi) and location (Mut, Silifke, and Anamur). In total, 29 pools were generated and real-time ITS1 PCR assay was performed to detect and identify natural Leishmania Ross, 1903 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida) infection.Two pools, both from Mut town, containing P. sergenti specimens were found positive and Leishmania tropics Ross, 1903 was identified as an infectious agent for both pools. In conclusion, the sand fly fauna was determined in an endemic area for CL. The detection of L. tropica DNA in P. sergenti specimens showed the possible vectorial role of this species in Mersin province.