In this study, Galanthus elwesii Hook. (Amaryllidaceae) was investigated for its chemical composition by using GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) method and anticholinesterase activity together with molecular modeling studies. Galanthus elwesii was collected from three different regions of Turkey and 44 compounds were detected by GC-MS in six different alkaloid extracts. The molecular docking technique was carried out to exhibit binding orientations of Galanthus elwesii compounds in the gorge of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Electrophorus electricus and equine butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) constituted from the crystal structure of human BuChE with the help of homology modeling technique. Interesting results were obtained from the docking study, especially on O-methylleucotamine. The AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of the extracts were also tested by in vitro Ellman method. The samples collected from Karaburun-Izmir were found to be the most active among others. (C) 2017 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.