Extracellular volume overload and hypertension are important contributors to the high risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Hypertension is present in more than 90% of patients at the initiation of haemodialysis and persists in more than two-thirds, despite use of several antihypertensive medications. High blood pressure is a risk factor for the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and mortality, although there are controversies with some study findings showing poor survival with low-but not high-blood pressure. The most frequent cause of hypertension in patients undergoing haemodialysis is volume overload, which is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes itself independent of blood pressure. Although antihypertensive medications might not be successful to control blood pressure, extracellular volume reduction by persistent ultrafiltration and dietary salt restriction can produce favourable results with good blood pressure control. More frequent or longer haemodialysis can facilitate volume and blood pressure control. However, successful volume and blood pressure control is also possible in patients undergoing conventional haemodialysis.