Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is recognized as a worldwide zoonosis a wide host and potentially com-plex reservoir systems. Infected ruminants are the main source of infection for humans, but cats also represent a potential source of infection. The prevalence of C burnetii in cats in Iran is unknown and the risks of transmission to humans are undetermined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of C burnetii in domestic cats and their owners. An Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for detection of anti-C burnetii antibodies in both cats and humans. Cats serum samples and humans serum samples (n = 85) were tested with indirect ELISA. C burnetii was diagnosed using real timepolymerase chain reaction. Antibodies were detected in 19 sera of 85 (22.35%) samples in stray cats, 9 sera of 78 (11.53%) samples of domestic cats and 4 sera of 78 (5.12%) samples of their owners. This first study of C burnetii prevalence in cats in Iran has indicated that positive samples can be found throughout the country and these results confirm that Iranian cats have been exposed to C burnetii. Moreover, this study demonstrates that cat owners, breeders and veterinary personnel might be at higher risk of exposure of C burnetii. (c) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.