This research investigated effects of changing the diamond mesh size on codend selectivity in Mediterranean fisheries. The selectivity of a typical 50-mm diamond knotless polyethylene (PE) codend used in the Turkish fishery in the Aegean Sea was measured for commercially important species, in particular hake (Merluccius merluccius), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius) and John Dory (Zeus faber). Fishing trials were carried out on the commercial trawler 'Hapuloglu' between 9 and 12 December 2006 using a modified trawl net. Selectivity data were collected by the covered codend method and analysed by means of a logistic equation (Maximum Likelihood Method). The mean selectivity curve was estimated from individual hauls, taking between-haul variations into account. Mean mesh size of the codend was 49.4 mm as measured by digital calliper. Mean values for 50% retention length of hake and horse mackerel were estimated to be 11.4 and 15.6 cm total length; corresponding selection ranges were 4.1 and 5.5 cm respectively. The 50-mm diamond mesh codend showed adequate selectivity compared to the minimum landing size (MLS) for horse mackerel, while for hake it selected specimens in a size range far lower than the MLS. No selectivity values could be determined for anglerfish or John Dory. To design a more selective codend for the Turkish demersal trawl fishery, not only mesh size regulations but also other codend characteristics and netting material properties must be urgently considered.