Object: The purpose was to investigate the effects of local tetanus toxin (TeTx) application on sciatic nerve regeneration following a rat model of transection injury. Methods: After both sciatic nerves were transected and repaired with three epineural sutures, 12 male Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. 0.25 ml (2.5 flocculation units) TeTx was injected into a piece of absorbable gelatin sponge in TeTx group. In controls, 0.25 ml saline injected. Assessments were performed by using climbing degrees, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and histological parameters (axon number and axonal diameter) 12th week. Results: CMAPs amplitudes were 11.6 +/- 4.7 mV and 1.4 +/- 1.3 mV in gastrocnemius and interdigital muscles in TeTx group (5.8 +/- 2.4 mV and 0.2 +/- 0.1 mV, P < 0.05). Climbing degrees were significantly different (61.6 +/- 1.7 vs. 38.3 +/- 2.6, P < 0.05). Total axon numbers were higher (1341.1 +/- 57.3 vs. 877.5 +/- 34.9, P < 0.05) and the mean axon diameter was smaller (4.2 +/- 2.1 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.9, P < 0.05) in the TeTx group. Conclusion: This preliminary study firstly demonstrated the effectiveness of TeTx on nerve repair in experimental sciatic rat model based on functional, electromyographic and histological parameters. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.