A total of 36 syllid specimens preserved on permanent slides' which were collected and identified by G. Cognetti, and deposited at the Museum of the Stazione Zoologica "Anton Dohrn" in Naples, Italy, were re-examined. Among the material, two new species of Autolvtus, Autolytus antondohrni sp. nov. and A. cognettii sp. nov., were found and are described. Three new combinations are assigned: Autolytus mediterraneus (Cognetti, 1953), Exogone (Parexogone) meridionalis (Cognetti, 1955) and Syllis alternata Moore, 1908. Four lectotypes are designated for Autolytus convolutus Cognetti, 1953, A. mediterraneus (Cognetti, 1953), A. neapolitanus Cognetti, 1953 and Exogone (Parexogone) meridionalis (Cognetti, 1955). Proceraea scapularis (Claparede, 1864) is resurrected.