Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is known for its anticancer properties including induction of apoptosis as well as the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. Understanding the mechanisms of action for calcitriol will help with the development of novel treatment strategies. Since vitamin D exerts its cellular actions via binding to its receptor and by altering expressions of a set of genes, we aimed to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on transcriptomic profile of breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that calcitriol alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, therefore in this study we have focused on ER-stress-related genes to reveal calcitriols action on these genes in particular. We have treated breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with previously determined IC50 concentrations of calcitriol and evaluated the transcriptomic alterations via microarray. During analysis, only genes altered by at least 2-fold with a P value < 0.05 were taken into consideration. Our findings revealed an ER-stress-associated transcriptomic profile induced by calcitriol. Induced genes include genes with a pro-survival function (NUPR1, DNAJB9, HMOX1, LCN2, and LAMP3) and with a pro-death function (CHOP (DDIT3), DDIT4, NDGR1, NOXA, and CLGN). These results suggest that calcitriol induces an ER-stress-like response inducing both pro-survival and pro-death transcripts in the process.