Objective: A long-term clinical study previously stated that adhesively luted resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs) with two retainers exhibited two complications (loss of adhesion or fracture between retainer and pontic) when compared to RBFPDs with a single retainer. The reasons for these complications were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution of two-retainer and single-retainer zirconium dioxide RBFPDs by using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA). Method and Materials: Two different 3D finite element models were created. Each model contained cortical bone, cancellous bone, periodontal ligament, cement, and enamel. Additionally one of the models contained a two-retainer zirconium dioxide RBFPD while another contained a single-retainer zirconium dioxide RBFPD. A 100 N force was applied at 45 degrees 2 mm below the incisal edge of the palatal surface of the pontic. In each model, Von Mises stress distribution was evaluated. Results: Maximum Von Mises stress values in RBFPD with a single retainer and two retainers were 1.13 MPa and 1.23 MPa, respectively. Von Mises stress was concentrated at the interface between pontic and retainer for RBFPD with two retainers. Conclusion: Zirconium dioxide RBFPD with a single retainer and two retainers exhibited similar stress concentrations between pontic and retainer. However, the use of a single retainer for RBFPDs prevented stress concentration at the interface between retainer and pontic.