Background: Concomitant evaluation of the metabolic and growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy in Turner syndrome (TS) may be used in the prediction of the growth response to GH therapy. Aim: To evaluate the metabolic effects of GH therapy in TS and correlation with the short-term growth response. Patients: 24 prepubertal children with TS, aged 9.4 +/- 2.6 years were followed for auxology and IGF-I, IGFBP-3, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, lipids and OGTT results in a prospective multicenter study. Intervention: GH (Genotropin (R)) in a dose of 50 mu g/kg/day for 1 year. Results: Height standard deviation score (SDS) increased from -3.9 +/- 8 1.5 to -3.5 +/- 1.4 (p = 0.000) on therapy. BMI did not change. IGF-I SDS increased from -2.3 +/- 0.4 to -1.6 +/- 1.1 at 3 and 6 months (p = 0.001) and decreased thereafter. Serum leptin decreased significantly from 2.3 +/- 3.9 to 1.7 +/- 5.3 ng/ml (p = 0.022) at 3 months and increased afterwards. Serum ghrelin decreased from 1.2 +/- 0.8 to 0.9 +/- 0.4 ng/ml (p = 0.005) with no change in adiponectin. Basal and stimulated insulin levels also increased significantly. Delta height SDS over 1 year showed a significant correlation with Delta IGF-I0-3 months (r = 0.450, p = 0.027). Conclusion: IGF-I may be considered as a marker of growth response in TS at short term. Leptin shows a decrease at short term but does not have a correlation with growth response. The decrease in ghrelin in face of unchanged weight seems to be associated with increase in IGF-I and insulin levels. The unchanged adiponectin levels in spite of an increase in insulin levels indicates that adiponectin is mainly affected by weight, not insulin. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.