The aim of this study is to compare collection of sufficient material and diagnostic accuracy of Pipelle biopsy with curettage and hysterectomy. A total of 82 cases with indications for endometrial biopsy for any reason and in which endometrial biopsy was performed with dilatation and curettage (D&C) and Pipelle aspiration biopsy, and 66 cases in which an indication for hysterectomy was established for any reason were included in the study. Histopathological findings were examined in the following six groups: normal; endometrial polyps; hyperplasia without atypia; hyperplasia with atypia; atrophy; and insufficient material. Descriptive statistical methods and McNemar's test were used. When the histopathological compatibility between Pipelle and D&C was considered (n = 82), a diagnosis that was different from that obtained by D&C was obtained in 22 of the 63 cases (34%), in whom normal endometrial histology was found with a Pipelle biopsy specimen. It was observed that only 1 of 13 cases of endometrial polyps was diagnosed with Pipelle biopsy. Insufficient material was obtained in six cases (7%) with Pipelle biopsies and three cases (4%) with D&C. While Pipelle biopsies and D&C have a nearly equal level of success in widespread endometrial lesions, Pipelle biopsies provide limited diagnostic accuracy in cases with focal pathologies.