Various factors affect the development of the vertebral canal. The dimensions of the vertebral canal and the intervertebral foramen can be altered by these factors before or after birth. Sex differences in dimensions have also been reported. When there is a stenosis of the vertebral canal or the intervertebral foramen, neural structures confined within them can be affected easily, resulting in symptoms. Using computed tomography images, we compared vertebral canal dimensions in 100 patients with low back pain and/or radiculopathy with those in 40 healthy, non-symptomatic controls. We also measured the dimensions of 275 dry bones. We found significant correlations among the variables in the live subjects. We found significant differences between patients and controls in the variables that were measured. Stenoses were more prevalent in females. Dry bone measurements showed some sex differences, and stenosis mainly in vertebrae L4, L5 and S1.