Extracts obtained from different parts of 10 Centaurea L. (Asteraceae) species [C. calolepis Boiss., C. cariensis Boiss subsp. maculiceps (O. Schwarz) Wagenitz, C. cariensis Boiss. subsp. microlepis (Boiss.) Wagenitz, C. hierapolitana Boiss., C. cadmea Boiss., C. reuterana Boiss. var. reuterana, C. cyanus L., C. depressa Bieb., C. urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei, and C. ensiformis P. H. Davis], most of them endemic in Turkey, were evaluated for in vitro antiprotozoal activities (against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani) and antimicrobial activities (against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Aspergillus fumigatus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). The chloroform extract of C. hierapolitana demonstrated activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum clones with IC50 values of 7 and 7.3 mu g/ml, respectively. The highest antileishmanial activities among the extracts were observed with the chloroform extract of C. hierapolitana (IC50 8.7 mu g/ml, IC90 17 mu g/ml). Hexane extracts of C. depressa and C. urvillei subsp. urvillei showed antifungal activity against Candida krusei (IC50 15 and 45 mu g/ml, respectively). Finally, the chloroform extract of C. urvillei subsp. urvillei had activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 40 mu g/ml.