Described here are the electrochemical parameters for MB on binding to DNA at hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and carbon paste electrode (CPE) in the solution and at the electrode surface. MB, which interacts with the immobilized calf thymus DNA, was detected by using single-stranded DNA-modified HMDE or CPE (ssDNA-modified HMDE or CPE), bare HNME or CPE, and double-stranded DNA-modified HMDE or CPE (dsDNA-modified HMDE or CPE) in combination with adsorptive transfer stripping voltammetry (AdTSV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and alternating current voltammetry (ACV) techniques. The structural conformation of DNA and hybridization between synthetic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and DNA oligonucleotides were determined by the changes in the voltammetric peak of NM. The PNA and DNA probes were also challenged with excessive and equal amount of noncomplementary DNA and a mixture that contained one-base mismatched and target DNA. The partition coefficient was also obtained from the signal of MB with probe, hybrid, and ssDNA-modified GCEs. The effect of probe, target, and ssDNA concentration upon the MB signal was investigated. These results demonstrated that MB could be used as an effective electroactive hybridization indicator for DNA biosensors. Performance characteristics of the sensor are described, along with future prospects. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.