Determination of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds for basic standardization of Turkish propolis

ÖZKÖK A., Keskin M., Tanugur Samanci A. E. , Yorulmaz Onder E., TAKMA Ç.

APPLIED BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, vol.64, no.1, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 64 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1186/s13765-021-00608-3


This study aimed to determine the standard amount of antioxidant content and compounds of the propolis for the standardization of propolis. For this purpose, the total flavonoids, total phenolic, CUPRAC antioxidant capacity content and the diversity of phenolic and flavonoid components of these propolis samples were found by HPLC determined at the 23 propolis samples which were collected different regions of Turkey. Beside that, the similarities and differences of these 23 provinces to each other according to their antioxidant capacities were investigated by multidimensional scaling analysis. The total flavonoid content in the propolis samples were determined between 21.28 and 152.56 mg CE/g. The total phenolic content in the propolis samples was found between 34.53 mg and 259.4 mg GAE/g. CUPRAC antioxidant capacity of the propolis samples and antioxidant range was found from 95.35 to 710.43 mg TE/g. Also, 4 flavonoid [Quercetin (min.1.12-max.4.14 mg/g), Galangin (min.0.72-max.40.79 mg/g), Apigenin (min.1.07-max.17.35 mg/g), Pinocembrin (min.1.32-max.39.92 mg/g] and 6 phenolic acid [Caffeic acid (min.1.20-max.7.6 mg/g), p-Coumaric acid (min.1.26-max.4.47 mg/g), trans-Ferulic acid (min.1.28-max.4.92 mg/g), Protocatechuic acid (1.78 mg/g), trans-Cinnamic acid (min.1.05-max.3.83 mg/g), Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) (min.1.41-max.30.15 mg/g)] components were detected as mg/g, in different ratios in propolis samples collected from different regions. The feature of this study, so far, is to have the maximum number of samples representing the Turkish propolis, and so is thought to help to national and international propolis standard workings.