Failure of prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence in liver transplant patients with HBV immunoglobulin (HBIG) or lamivudine or both can be associated with rapid development of liver failure. Some of these patients develop a devastating clinicopathological state characterized by jaundice and rapidly progressive liver failure or fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. We present two liver transplant recipients who experienced HBV recurrence while they were under lamivudine and HBIG prophylaxis. One of them had finding of severe HBV infection; the other, fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. After commencing adefovir dipivoxil both patients showed improvements in clinical status and laboratory data. At month 4 of treatment, HBV DNA values became negative and liver function tests almost normalized. In addition, in one case showed HBs ag/anti-HBs seroconversion. When failure of prophylaxis with lamivudine and HBIG occurs, adefovir dipivoxil should be considered to be a safe and effective choice for recurrent HBV infections in liver transplant patients.