P>Size selectivity of the 40 mm nominal polyethylene (PE) square mesh codend and the 44 mm nominal polyamide (PA) diamond mesh codend were determined under commercial conditions in the demersal trawl fishery. Data were collected using the covered codend technique and analyzed by logistic equation with a maximum likelihood method. Changing the mesh from a 44 mm PA diamond to a 40 mm PE square increased the mean retention lengths (L(50)s) of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), picarel (Spicara maena) and bogue (Boops boops) and decreased the selection ranges (SR) for common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). For large-eye dentex (Dentex macrophthalmus) and axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne) mean L(50) and SR values were 9.6 and 11.8, and 2.4 and 2.4 cm, respectively, only in the DM44PA codend. For golden banded goatfish (Upeneus moluccensis) values for SM40PE were only 15.0 and 2.7 cm, respectively. Results showed that the 40 mm PE square mesh codend provided higher selectivity for most of the Mediterranean fishes. The results also showed that regulating mesh size and requiring square mesh openings during trawling is essential for the release of immature individuals. This practice will result in a reduction in overfishing and permit recovery of overfished stocks.