Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited autoinflammatory disorder that can result in attacks with accompanying recurrent episodes of fever, serositis, and skin rash. MiRNAs are demonstrated to be associated with a number of other diseases; however, no comprehensive study has revealed its association with FMF disease. The aim is to investigate the role of microRNAs in FMF. We included 51 patients with genetically diagnosed FMF who had clinical symptoms and 49 healthy volunteers. Fifteen miRNAs that were found to be associated with autoinflammatory diseases and have a part in immune response were evaluated. The expression levels of 11 miRNAs (miR-125a, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-15a, miR-16, miR-181a, miR-21, miR-223, miR-26a, and miR-34a) in the patient group were significantly low, compared with the control group (p<0.05). The patient group was analyzed and compared within itself, and the expression levels of 5 miRNAs (miR-132, miR-15a, miR-181a, miR-23b, miR-26a) in the patients who took colchicine seemed to have increased and levels of 5 miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-15a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-34a) in the patients who took colchicine were significantly lower (p<0.05). Furthermore, the attack patients were compared with the control group, and their expression levels of 4 miRNAs (miR-132, miR-15a, miR-21, miR-34a) were significantly lower (p<0.05). Levels of 9 miRNAs (miR-132, miR-146a, miR-15a, miR-16, miR-181a, miR-21, miR-223, miR-26a, miR-34a) in non-attack patients decreased significantly (p<0.05). Our study demonstrates that miRNAs could be effective in the pathogenesis of FMF.