In this study, we aimed to evaluate the 1-year post-treatment follow-up results of 112 patients who received pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 52 weeks. HBeAg negativity/seroconversion and/or negative HBV-DNA at the end of the treatment were considered as response. Patients who had response at the end of treatment but had HBV-DNA breakthrough during 1-year follow-up were considered as relapse. The study group comprised 112 cases (34 HBeAg-positive, 78 HBeAg-negative). In HBeAg-positive and -negative cases, end-of-treatment response rates were 2.9% and 60.2%, whereas 1-year sustained virological response rates were 0 and 33.3%, respectively. When we compared relapse cases versus cases with response at the end of 1-year follow-up, being female and having low viral load were the two parameters associated with higher response rates (Chi-square, P=0.028; Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.023). Overall non-response rates to PEG-IFN were high (57.1%). Results in HBeAg-positive cases were disappointing.