Continuous atmospheric plasma oxidation (APO) was used to introduce oxygen functionalities to the surface of carbon fibres in an attempt to enhance interfacial adhesion between carbon fibres and polyamide-12 (PA-12). APO only affects the surface properties of the fibres while their bulk properties remained unchanged. Contact angle and zeta-potential measurements demonstrated that APO-treated fibres became significantly more hydrophilic due to the introduction of polar oxygen-containing groups on the fibre surface, which also resulted in an increase of surface energy on the carbon fibres. The interfacial shear strength of single carbon fibre/PA-12 model composites, determined by single fibre fragmentation tests, showed an increase from 40 to 83 MPa with up to 4 min of APO treatment time which confirms that the fibre/matrix interfacial adhesion was enhanced. This highlights that the incorporation of APO into composite manufacturing will allow tailoring of the fibre/matrix interface.