In this study, Fritillaria arsusiana (Liliaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Hatay province in southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to F. amana and F. hermonis by habitus features and broadly campanulate flowers, but differs mainly by its bulb shape and size, smaller leaf and flower features, and flower colour. It has also been morphologically compared with F. wendelboi, F. pinardii, and F. latakiensis. The detailed description, diagnostic characters, original photographs, geographical distribution, habitat and phenology, etymology, conservation status, and identification key of the new and the related species are presented in this study. IUCN conservation status of F. arsusiana is suggested as Critically Endangered (CR).