Effects of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on water erosion and crust formation for different types of soils in Menemen Plain, Turkey


JOURNAL OF FOOD AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT, vol.9, no.1, pp.642-647, 2011 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Page Numbers: pp.642-647


Crusts on soil surfaces are formed after heavy rainfalls, based on soil characteristics, wind and sunshine effects. Nearly 840 t km(-2) of soil is lost every year by water erosion in Turkey. Crust formation and water erosion are also serious problems in the Gediz Basin, Western Anatolia. This study was carried out to determine the effects of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on water erosion and crust formation for the Menemen Plain soils in the Gediz Basin, Turkey. Twelve soil samples were taken from the Research, Application and Production Farm of Ege University in Menemen. Three different doses of PAM solutions were sprayed on the surfaces of the soil samples, which were 0, 6.70 and 33.50 kg ha(-1) as two consecutive rainfalls (65 mm h(-1)). Then, erosion plots were under a platform that included 4 infrared lamps (4 x 250 W) during 16 hours between the two consecutive simulated rainfalls. After waiting under the platform, crust strengths on soil surfaces were measured by a hand type penetrometer between the two consecutive rainfalls. According to the study, PAM treatments were found to be very effective on reducing soil erosion. Statistical analyses also showed that the PAM treatments decreased runoff and soil loss significantly (p <= 0.01) in each of the two simulated rainfalls. However, PAM treatments were not effective in reducing crust strength significantly. On the other hand, it was found that these treatments were relatively effective on reducing crust strengths comparing with control plots. Consequently, the effects of PAM treatments on runoff start times, runoff, soil loss and crust strengths were statistically significant according to the LSD test (p <= 0.05).