Griscelli syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by pigment dilution, variable cellular immunodeficiency, and an acute phase of uncontrolled T lymphocyte and macrophage activation. We previously mapped the disease locus to 15q21 and showed that a MyoVa gene (HGMW-approved symbol MYO5A) defect leads to Griscelli syndrome. We report a second MyoVa mutation in a new patient, confirming this first finding. However, in four other Griscelli syndrome patients analyzed, the MYOVA protein is expressed, and no mutation can be detected in the MyoVa gene coding sequence, even in the alternatively spliced region for which exon-intron boundaries were characterized. Linkage analysis performed in 15 Griscelli families thus far studied confirms the first localization. However, fine haplotype analysis in three families strongly suggests the existence of a second gene at the same locus for Griscelli syndrome less than 7.3 cM distant from the MyoVa gene. (C) 2000 Academic Press.