In this study, mechanical, durability, thermal and microstructural properties of calcium aluminate cement-based mortar mixtures incorporating 10% to 40% partial replacement by weight of blast furnace slag and fly ash were investigated. Compressive and flexural strength tests were performed at 3, 7, 28 and 90 days. Sulfate and acid resistance, high temperature resistance, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), micro-tomography (MicroCT) and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were also performed on the mortar mixtures. The compressive strength, high temperature resistance and durability test results on mortars incorporating 10% blast furnace slag and 20% fly ash partial replacement for calcium aluminate cement were comparable to that of the control mixture. Although there were changes in pore structure due to mineral admixture addition, no significant change was observed in the chemical properties of the mixtures. Results indicate that blast furnace slag and fly ash partial replacement for calcium aluminate cement can produce an eco-efficient and cost-effective binder.