Some chronic renal failure patients respond poorly to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). In continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, such a poor response may indicate inadequate dialysis or low body iron stores. To correct iron deficiency, once-a-week intravenous iron supplementation is recommended. However, hemodialysis patients receive iron supplements three times a week. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of iron supplementation between once-weekly and twice-weekly regimens. In both groups, rHuEPO doses were similar. Seventeen CAPD patients were studied. All had hemoglobin levels less than 10 g/dL. Ten patients were given 50 mg intravenous iron twice weekly until a total iron dose of 600 mg was achieved (stage I). The patients were crossed over to receive another 600 mg iron (stage II). Hematocrit increased significantly in patients receiving twice-a-week iron supplementation (+3.8% and 6%) commentation (+1.3% and 1.4%) during stages I and II. The ferritin levels were not different between the groups.