The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of non-uniform solar irradiation distribution on energy output of different interconnected configurations in photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In order to find which configuration is less susceptible to mismatch effects, a PV module model is developed. This model can take into consideration the effects of bypass diodes and the variation of the equivalent circuit parameters with respect to operating conditions. The proposed model can provide sufficient degree of precision as well as solar cell-based analysis in analyzing large scale PV arrays without increasing the computational effort. In order to produce more reliable and robust simulations, improved and extended algorithms are presented. Some results are discussed in detail and some recommendations are extracted by testing several shading scenarios. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.