The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of phosphorus treatments on yield and quality traits of three anise populations with different origin under Bornova-Izmir conditions in 2016 and 2017. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied at the rate of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha(-1) to three different anise populations (Turkish, Spanish and Syrian). Field trials were arranged as split-plot in the Randomized Complete Block design with three replications. The plant characteristics such as plant height (cm), biomass (kg ha(-1)), number of branches, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, seed yield(kg ha(-1)), 1000-seed weight (g), essential oil content (%) and essential oil yield (L ha(-1)) were measured. It was found that the highest number of seeds per umbel, 1000-seed weight and essential oil content were obtained from the 60 kg ha(-1) phosphorus application.