Amebiasis is a common protozoan infection worldwide, causing serious health problems in both children and adults. Today, almost 10% of the world population is infected with Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar. The aims of this study were both the comparison of the reproduction rates,and densities of E. histolytica/E. dispar in Robinson, Dobell-Laidlaw and P-Y culture media and isolation of E. histolytica/E. dispar from stool samples in Peptone-Yeast (P-Y) medium. Trophozoites and cysts of E. histolytica/E. dispar, maintained in Robinson medium, and stool samples of patients with amebiasis were inoculated into P-Y, Robinson and Dobell-Laidlaw culture media. Reproduction rates reached their peak levels 48 h after the inoculation in all culture media. Reproduction rates in P-Y and Robinson media were found similar; however, they were higher than the reproduction rate in Dobell-Laidlaw medium (p < 0.01); there was no statistically significant difference between the reproduction rates of P-Y and Robinson media (p > 0.05). Twelve isolates from 12 patients were cultivated in P-Y medium and checked for reproduction everyday for 7 days. Twelve of the 12 (100%) isolates were cultivated in P-Y medium, indicating that the P-Y was an effective medium for the isolation of E. histolytica/E. dispar in stool samples. According to these results, P-Y medium could be preferred in immunologic, serologic and molecular studies and, thus the definitive diagnosis of amebiasis due to its low cost and simple formula. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.