The effects of high-flux dialysis and ultrapure dialysate on survival of hemodialysis patients are incompletely understood. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of both membrane permeability and dialysate purity on cardiovascular outcomes. We randomly assigned 704 patients on three times per week hemodialysis to either high- or low-flux dialyzers and either ultrapure or standard dialysate using a two-by-two factorial design. The primary outcome was a composite of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events during a minimum 3 years follow-up. We did not detect statistically significant differences in the primary outcome between high- and low-flux (HR=0.73, 95% CI=0.49 to 1.08, P=0.12) and between ultrapure and standard dialysate (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.61 to 1.32, P=0.60). Posthoc analyses suggested that cardiovascular event-free survival was significantly better in the high-flux group compared with the low-flux group for the subgroup with arteriovenous fistulas, which constituted 82% of the study population (adjusted HR=0.61, 95% CI=0.38 to 0.97, P=0.03). Furthermore, high-flux dialysis associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events among diabetic subjects (adjusted HR=0.49, 95% CI=0.25 to 0.94, P=0.03), and ultrapure dialysate associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events among subjects with more than 3 years of dialysis (adjusted H R=0.55, 95% CI=0.31 to 0.97, P=0.04). In conclusion, this trial did not detect a difference in cardiovascular event-free survival between flux and dialysate groups. Posthoc analyses suggest that high-flux hemodialysis may benefit patients with an arteriovenous fistula and patients with diabetes and that ultrapure dialysate may benefit patients with longer dialysis vintage.