The mechanical and thermal properties of jute fiber/HDPE composites as a function of alkali and oligomeric siloxane treatment of jute fabric were investigated. The effect of surface treatments on the composites was assessed by means of tensile test, short-beam shear test, three-point bending test, SEM, TGA, and DSC. When jute fabric are first treated with alkali solution and then oligomeric siloxane solution, 34% and 49% increases in tensile and flexural strength were observed, respectively. Moreover, it is interesting to note that after alkali and siloxane treatment of jute fabric, 169% increase in ILSS of jute/HDPE composite was obtained. This demonstrates that the adhesion between jute fiber and HDPE matrix is greatly increased by alkali and oligomeric siloxane treatment of jute fabric. This observation was also confirmed by SEM analysis of fracture surface of composites. Alkali and oligomeric siloxane treatment of jute fabric did not considerably change thermal stability and melting and crystallization temperatures of jute/HDPE.