Production of fucoxanthin by diatoms has become an alternative research area due to their low cost, convenience and diversity. The fucoxanthin content of Cylindrotheca closterium and its enhancement by altering the cultivation conditions via oxidative stress were investigated in this study. For this purpose, the extraction parameters were optimized and the highest fucoxanthin concentration (6.58 mg g(-1)) was achieved within 15.0 minutes at 40 degrees C. Then, this yield reached to 10.15 mg g(-1) in the presence of NaOCl and Fe2+. It is worth noting that, this is the first time that the effect of oxidative stress on fucoxanthin production in diatom has been studied according to our knowledge. Therefore, the results of this study and the discussion about the mechanisms can be a reference for the enrichment of fucoxanthin from other diatoms.