Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10 (TNFRSF10) is a death domaincontaining receptor for the apoptotic ligand TNFSF10, which involves multiple processes, including hepatocarcinogenesis and immune response against HBV infection. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for TNFRSF10. To assess the association of TNFRSF10 eQTL SNPs with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic HBV infection, we designed a case-control study that included 1,300 HBV-related HCC patients, 1,344 chronic HBV carriers, and 1,344 subjects with HBV natural clearance, and then genotyped two TNFRSF10 eQTL SNPs (rs79037040 and rs2055822). We found that rs79037040 GT/TT genotypes were associated with a decreased HCC risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 0.71-0.97, P = 0.021) but an increased chronic HBV infection risk of borderline significance (adjusted OR = 1.14, 95% CIs = 0.98-1.33, P = 0.085). In contrast, the rs2055822 G allele was a risk factor for HCC (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CIs = 1.00-1.25, P = 0.041) but a protective factor for chronic HBV infection (adjusted OR = 0.89, 95% CIs = 0.80-0.99, P = 0.038). Furthermore, we observed a dose-dependent relationship between the number of alleles (rs79037040-T and rs2055822-A) and the risk of HCC and chronic HBV infection. In comparison with "0" alleles, having "1-4" alleles was significantly associated with decreased HCC risk and increased HBV infection risk. These findings suggest that eQTL SNPs for TNFRSF10 may be susceptibility markers for HCC and chronic HBV infection. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.