Valorisation of almond shell waste in ultrasonic biomordanted dyeing: alternatives to metallic mordants

Ismal O. E. , Yildirim L., ÖZDOĞAN E.

JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE, cilt.106, ss.343-353, 2015 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 106 Konu: 4
  • Basım Tarihi: 2015
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1080/00405000.2014.949503
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.343-353


An agroindustrial waste, outer green shell of almond fruit has been valorised as a novel natural dye using chemical solvent-free extraction, small amount of metallic mordants, one-bath biomordanted dyeing, ultrasonic medium, auxiliary-free dyeing and washing. The main objective of this study is to evaluate biomordants vs. metallic mordants depending on heating system both in extraction and dyeing and to reveal alternatives to metallic mordants. Effects of conventional- and ultrasound-assisted systems on dyeing and fastness properties were investigated. Wool fabrics dyed using metallic mordants (alum, iron II sulphate, copper II sulphate and potassium dichromate) were compared with the samples dyed in conjunction with biomordants [powder of valex (acorn of Quercus ithaburensis ssp. macrolepis), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) rind, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and thuja (Thuja orientalis) leaves] in terms of colour yield, colour coordinates and fastness properties. Heating system had significant effects on dyeing and fastness results. Power ultrasound did not present any advantage in colour yield increment while it presented different effects on fastness values depending on mordant and process type of which ultrasound was applied. Some biomordants could be replaced with metallic mordants depending on their types and heating system. They could produce completely different colour gamuts just like metallic mordants.