Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate health beliefs and BSE behavior of female academicians in a Turkish university. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at various faculties located in Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, in 2005. The sample consisted of 224 female academicians. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and the Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scales (HBM). Descriptive statistics, t-test and Mann Whitney u analysis were conducted. Results: The percentage of participants who regularly performed BSE was 27.7 %. Benefits and health motivation related to BSE ranked either first or second, along with confidence. Perceived barriers to BSE had the lowest item mean subscale score in academicians. Single academicians perceived susceptibility and seriousness higher than their married counterparts. Family history of breast cancer of participants affected their health beliefs subscale. Conclusions: BSE performance among participants was more likely in women academicians who exhibited higher confidence and those who perceived fewer barriers related to BSE performance, complying with the conceptual structure of the HBM. Therefore, it is recommended that in order to increase the rates of regular breast cancer screening, mass health protective programs based on the HBM should be executed for women.